Of all the young soldiers and officials who were players in the Great Game perhaps the most famous was Alexander Burnes. He was nicknamed ‘Bokhara Burnes’ for having been the first to explore Bokhara and to be accepted by its leaders but it was in Afghanistan that he was to have the greatest impact and where he died in the days before one of the British Empire’s most catastrophic defeats.
Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland and like so many of his age and background joined the East India Company’s army at sixteen . Burnes quickly showed himself to be a resourceful, energetic and spirited young man who had a gift for learning languages which earnt him rapid promotion. When someone was needed to lead a mission to the ruler of the Punjab, Ranjit Singh, Burnes, at the age of 25. was chosen. Burnes had recently been moved from his regiment the 1st Bombay Light Infantry to the Indian Political Service. The mission was an odd one of taking five draw horses 500 miles on barges up the Indus river to Singh’s capital at Lahore.
Singh had recently presented to William IV a gift of Kashmiri shawls. This came at a time when the government was becoming increasingly concerned about Russian expansionism in central Asia. The President of the Board of Control of India, Lord Ellenborough wanted to use trade as a way of projecting influence in the region and as a way of halting the Russian advance. The explorer William Moorcroft was able to persuade Ellenborough to explore the possibility of using the River Indus to carry British trade to the frontiers of Central Asia from where they could be carried by caravan to the bazaars of the former Silk Road. Ellenborough then hit upon the idea of sending the five horses as a present to Singh via the Indus which could at the same time be surveyed for possible use as a trade route by the British.
On January 21, 1831 Burnes left Kutch near the mouth of the Indus in Sind with a small escort and the five dray horses and the coach they would pull aboard a flat bottomed craft.. Travelling mainly by night to avoids any reprisals by local people, Burnes arrived in Lahore five months later. The horses were a spectacular success and contributed to Burnes being given an excellent reception by Singh who was anxious to maintain good relations with Britain.
Burnes and his party remained for two months in Lahore, time for Burnes to get a close look at Singh’s powerful army and for Singh to quiz Burnes about the effectiveness of the Indian army. There were numerous military parades and long discussions between the two men. Burnes couls see that Singh was old and not likely to live long, something which the British would have to prepare for. Eventually Burnes returned home via Ludhiana, Britain’s most forward garrison town in British India where he caught sight of the deposed Afghan leader, Shah Shujah.
Reaching Simla in late summer, Burnes reported to the Governor General on his mission. He had shown the Indus to be navigable and plans began to be made to use the river for British trade in Turkestan, the area north of Afghanistan. Henry Pottinger was soon despatched to the emirs of Sind to negotiate the use of the Indus for trade.
Having gained the support of the Governor General, Burnes now put his own plan up for consideration. He wanted to explore the area north of where Conolly had got to the previous year, by going to Kabul and from there to through the Hindu Kush and along the Oxus to Bokhara. Despite his youth Burnes was given permission to go for the new Whig government of Grey was as concerned about the Russian threat to India as the previous government.
Accompanied by a small party the Indus was crossed on March 17, 1832 leaving the Punjab behind. The group adopted Afghan dress although they made no attempt to disguise the fact that they were European. Rather than travel through the Khyber Pass the party found a less dangerous route and headed towards Kabul which was reached on 1 May.
Burnes found the city of Kabul fascinating with its beautiful gardens and fruit trees. Burnes met the ruler of Kabul Dost Mohammed soon fate his arrival and the two men got on very well together. Mohammed had beaten off his brothers to oust the previous ruler, Shah Shujah who not was in exile in British India. Like previous Afghan rulers Mohammed was schooled in the art of treachery was cruel and could be deceitful. His people though rejoiced in the prosperity which he had brought to the land. Mohammed in his meetings with Burnes asked about European customs. He made it clear that he thoroughly disliked Ranjit Singh and even asked Burnes if he could help arm, train and modernise his army. Burnes was aware though of the British support for Singh and could not go too far.
Eventually Burnes and his party left Kabul and set off north towards Bokhara. On their journey they passed by Balkh where lay the remains of Moorcroft’s party who had died from illness and been buried near Balkh. Burnes wanted to locate the bodies and ensure they had a safe burial place. This he was to do before coming to the Oxus. Having spent several days asking about the navigability of the river, Burnes moved on across a desert to Bokhara which they entered on June 27, 1832. Burnes was summoned to see the Grand Vizier later that day giving the story that he was returning overland to England. Burnes got on very well with the Vizier and was shown around the city visiting the main square, the minaret from where criminals were thrown to their death and the slave market.
The Burnes party spent a month in Bokhara and when it came to leave he was persuaded not to travel north to Khiva because of the dangers of bandits and being kidnapped, but to travel to Persia. The next two British soldiers to arrive in Bokhara, Stoddart and Conolly we not so fortunate as Burnes for they were taken prisoner and executed. Eventually Burnes arrived back in India in January 1833. He reported to the Governor General, Lord Bentinck and then was ordered to London to brief the Cabinet and the Board of Control.
In England Burnes was feted as a hero. He was promoted to Captain, awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society. He was also invited to join the Athenaeum without having to stand for election – a rare honour. Burns had written an account of his travels whilst on board ship homebound. The publisher John Murray quickly published hi account and the book became abet seller. In his secret account to the government Burnes made clear that both Herat and Kabul need to be defended against possible Russian incursion. It was possible a Russian army could reach Kabul within a month from Balkh and the passes of the Hindu Kush would not present an insurmountable barrier to the armies of the Tsar. Balkh could be reached by using the waters of the Oxus which were within reach of the Russian fortress of Orenburg.
Afghanistan had been identified by Burnes as crucial in the Great Game of keeping the Russians away from India. The Russians were also aware of the importance Afghanistan and in the mid-
In October 1838 Auckland took the action that was to lead to the military occupation of Kabul by the British and its eventual forced retreat. Auckland issued a declaration making it clear that Britain was going to forcibly remove Mohammed from his throne and replace him with Shah Shujah. Charles Stoddart was despatched to the Emir of Bokhara to assure him that he was not to feel threatened in any way by the British action in Afghanistan. Stoddart was never to return to India. Instead he and the officer sent to rescue him, Conolly, were executed by the new Emir.
An army, called the Amy of the Indus was put together and invaded Afghanistan through the Bolan Pass. Burnes, now Lieutenant-
The British remained in Kabul to protect Shah Shujah who was anything but secure. They settled down to the kind of existence they enjoyed all over India. Race meetings, theatre, riding out became part of the everyday life of the British which did not endear them at all to the local people.
Resentment began to build up against the British presence. Prices of foodstuffs had risen because of the numbers of British troops that had to be fed. Taxes had increased to pay for Shujah’s administration and there was anger over the targeting of local women by the British. All this ought to have been reported to the leading British officers by Burnes but he had been side lined by the presence of Sir William Macnaughten. Burnes said his advice was never listened to and so he lived a life of idleness and womanising.
The fact that Burnes had been the first Briton to come to Kabul and befriend Dost Mohammed made him a target for local anger. On November 1, 1841, Burnes was warned by a friend that his life was in danger. At the time he was living in a house in the middle of the old part of the city that was not well protected. Next door was the garrison’s treasury which became the target of a mob that was building up near by. Soon the mob approached Burne’s house and started to become violent. The stables wee set on fire and a shot was fired which killed Major Broadfoot. Burnes tried to reason with the mob from a balcony and then came down to the garden to prevent entry. Despite defending himself as well as he could against overwhelming odds Burnes was cut down and killed. The mob went on to loot the treasury, all this happening without any action taken to help him by the British garrison of 4,500 troops stationed just outside the city. Macnaughten and Elphinstone, in charge of the troops, could not come to a decision about what to do. The only troops that attempted to help Burnes were those of Shujah and they were destroyed in the streets of Kabul.
The deaths of Burnes and his companions gave the opposition to the British presence encouragement but instead of trying to gain control of the city Elphinstone pulled the British forces back to their cantonment outside the city and prepared for a siege. The result would lead to one of he greatest of disaster to befall a British force on the c19th.
The near east in the early c19th
The 1st Lord Ellenborough
The River Indus
Burnes in disguise
The walls of Bokhara
Cossacks in Orenburg
The Bolan Pass
The death of Alexander Burnes